BURSA THE CITY OF IMMIGRANT

Bursa is a city formed by immigrations There hasbeen various immigration waves to Bursa alonghistory. During these immigrations, various peopleand populations came to Bursa from various regions.Even Tynis, living here before Turks, had immigratedto this wonderful region from Thrace. Then,Turks have come from steppes of middle east. Theclans of Kay›, E¤dir, Bo¤düz, and Alkaevli haveimmigrated to Bursa. Later on, the Armenians livingin Kütahya and thereafter jews have immigratedto Bursa.Following the early period of 15th century, duringCelali rebellions, many people running away fromvarious parts of Anatolia have settled here. Sincethese immigrations were of huge magnitude, thepopulation in Bursa between 1530-1573, has becometwo times higher.After the end of 1877-78 Ottoman-Russian war,Bursa hosted an immigration wave of people floodingfrom Rumeli and Caucasia. Most of these immigrantswhich were named “93 immigrants”, havesettled to province of Hüdavendigar. In this period,only from city of Rusçuk, 30.000 immigrants havecome to Bursa. The ones coming from Kazan settledin Mollaarap, the ones coming from Crimeasettled in Alacah›rka and Yeni Mahalle, and theones coming from Caucasia settled in Y›ld›r›m districts.Most of the villages of 93 immigrants were foundedon mountains. Ahmet Vefik Pasha has placed 3857of Rumeli immigrants to city center and 11591 ofthem to surrounding districts and villages. ‹t isknown that until 1886, the number of immigrantscame to Bursa was 60.254.As a result of these new immigrations began in1880′s, 18 new villages and 15 new neighborhoodsin central Bursa, 12 new villages in Gemlik, 32 newvillages and 3 new neighborhoods in ‹negöl werefounded In the aftermath of Balkan war in 1912, most of theTurks in occupied Balkan regions have immigratedto Bursa. Because of a new war, these people couldn’tbe housed properly and they could be housedonly with the Immigrants of Exchange in 1924.After the War of Independence, in place of Armeniansand Greeks who left the city, the immigrants ofExchang Teaty were brought and housed in Bursa.According to the treaty signed with Greece, besidesthe ones who come from Greece, the ones who losttheir houses and compelled to leave their hoes werehoused in Bursa as well. In this period, we see that39.808 immigrants have settled in Bursa.As you see, if we add the 93 immigrants to this longlist of immigrants coming to Bursa, you can moreeasily understand why we call Bursa as a city of immigrants.Bursa was the most preferred city by people immigratingfrom Balkans especially from Bulgaria fromthe beginning of 1950′s. People came to Bursa, wereestimated to be approximately 154.000. in immigrationof 1951, 115.000 in 1968, and more than200.000 in mandatory immigration of 1989. The ratesof different populations in Bursa were as follows:19% natives, 34% people from abroad, 13%people of east-southeast origin, 18% caucasions,and 9% Karadeniz people.Due to newly founded industrial facilities, Bursawas subjected to a huge flood of immigrants fromEast Anatolia region since beginning of 1970′s, andespecially in the last 10-15 years, has extended toGürsu and Görükle with surrounding slums. Overthe plane, the city is full of industrial facilities andbuildings without plan and they are extending untilDemirtafl. In 1967, there were 13.684 slums in Bursa.In order to prevent construction of slums, theconstruction of cheap public buildings has not beensuccessful in prevention of slums. The city continuedto expand without a plan. In 1984, 90.000 of155.000 buildings in Bursa, were without a licence.Especially the central Bursa and mostly the provincesof ‹negöl, Gemlik, Orhangazi, M. Kemalpafla,were subjected to a flood of immigrators comingfrom East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia, and Karadeniz.The slums of Bursa were crammed with peoplecoming from these regions. In the recent years,immigrants coming from these regions have begunto inhabit villages and form new villages as well.In the great immigration of 1989, many immigrantsof Bulgaria, have settled in Bursa. For these immigrants,many cheap apartments were constructed especiallyin Orhangazi, Kestel, and central Bursa.However, in the last ten years, the number of immigrantscoming to Bursa was decreased.