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CITY OF BURSA

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THE LOCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF BURSA

Bursa, a wonder of nature with its lakes, rivers, mountains, curative termal waters, large and fertile plains, and especially with its rich flora, is located in the northern-south of Anatolian peninsula, northern- west of the foots of Uluda¤ mountain, and… READ »

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BURSA THE CROSSROAD OF CIVILIZATIONS

Bursa and its surroundings, one of the many heavenly places of Anatolia, the cradle of civilizations, have witnessed many settlements since the old ages. The civilizations created by these settlements were dated back to 7 thousand years before according to… READ »

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Bursa in Mythology

According to myths, Bursa had been founded at Tahtal› Village at first. There was a sickly, poor daughter of a powerful Sultan. Her visage was horrendous because of leper. There was no one courting her because she wasn’t pleasant to… READ »

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The Foundation of Prousa (Bursa)

Bursa region, was dominated by many colonies until the Bithynian state was founded in the 4th century BC According to the famous History of Herodot, in those days the only existing city in this region was Cius/Gemlik. The foundation of… READ »

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Bursa, Whose City?

Bursa and its surroundings were formerly calledBithynia. The South and west of Uluda¤ wasknown as Mysia. The Bithynians living in the Bursaregion were of Thracian origin. Because it wassituated at the point where Europe meets Asia, therewere various people habitating… READ »

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The Approach of Turks Towards Bursa Region

Muslims were first closed in on Bursa during theperiod of Abbasi family. “Hamedanl›lar” of Aleppo,seized Bursa and ruled there for 23 years in 955.As far as we know, Turks first came to Bursa regionafter 1081. ‹znik was the capital of… READ »

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From Principality to State (Osman Gazi Period 1299-1324)

Osman Bey, The founderand first sultan of OttomanState was son ofErtu¤rul Gazi. TheChristian neighborsof Ottomans presenteda great advantagefor them and enabledOttomans to enlargentheir land into an empirein a very short time.Osman Bey received many support from Dervishesduring his founding of… READ »

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Will of Osman Gazi

Don’t stray away from Allah’s will! Learn whatyou don’t know from the learned. Don’t be cruel andmerciless. Cheer the world with your justice. Andpraise my name by not straying from jihad in thename of Allah! Lend your ear to the… READ »

The Conquest of Bursa

Since Osman Bey had won a victory against theunited army of Byzantine governors near Dimboz/Erdo¤an village in 1308, he was already veryclose to Bursa. After this date, he constructed twotowers; one commanded by Ak Timur located infront of Kükürtlü Hamam›,… READ »

Have Warriors in Women’sAttire Taken Bursa?

People of Bursa who immensely enjoy tales of heroism,maybe because they couldn’t accept the ideaof Bursa taken by brute force, have producedmany tales and myths concerning the conquest ofBursa. Chalcondyles and most of Christian historiansthat followed him record that Osman… READ »

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An Empire Is Rising Out of Bursa Orhan Gazi Period (1324-1360)

Orhan Bey, son of the founder of Ottoman state andthe second sultan of the Ottomans, was appointedas a deputy to his father. He conqueredMudanya in 1321, and Bursa on6 april, 1326 and ascended to the thronein 1324. He won a… READ »

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First Martyr Sultan,Murat Hüdavendigar (1360-1389)

He was the son of Orhan bey and took lessons onwar and governing from Lala fiahin Pasha. He wasappointed to be the governor of Bursa in 1340 andpromoted to be the commander of Rumeli armyupon death of his brother Süleyman… READ »

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A Sultan Like A Thunder, I. Bayezid (1360-1403)

Yıldırım Bayezıd, son of Murat I and Gülçiçek Hatun,has ascended the throne in1389. Many principalitieswere joined Ottomans duringhis term. He foughtwith crusaders in 1396in the Ni¤bolu war andwon. The AnatolianPrincipalities took thesupport of Timur and revoltedagainst Y›ld›r›m.He fought with Timur… READ »

The Face of DarknessInterregnum Period (1402-1413)

Although Bursa was developing fastly in the Ottomanperiod, after Ottomans were defeated by Timur,who had had the support of Anatolian Principalities,it was sacked and the whole city was set tofire including Ulucami by Timur’s soldiers. Then,for a certain period, the… READ »

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Çelebi Mehmet, the SultanWho Founded the Ottoman StateOnce Again (1413-1421)

Çelebi Mehmet, son of Sultan Bayezid I and DevletHatun, is the fifth of Ottoman Sultans and the secondfounder of Ottoman State. Hestruggled against his brothers;Isa and Musa to unite thewhole Ottoman lands,which was disintegratedafter the Ankara war(1402), under one uniquerule…. READ »

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A Dervish-Like Sultan,Murat II (1421-1451)

He is the son of Çelebi Mehmet andEmine Hatun. He was appointed tobe Amasya Governor in 1415. Hecrushed and overwhelmed the revoltsof Germiyano¤ullar›, Ramazano¤ullar›, and Mentefleo¤ullar›of Anatolian principalities andBörklüce Mustafa rebellion.He took the castle of Selanik (Thessaloniki)from Venezians. He expandedthe… READ »

Moral Capital, Bursa

After Fatih (1451-1481) conquered ‹stanbul, theimportance of Bursa fell to second place. Thus,Bursa stayed always the second and moral capital.For instance, when Fatih died and Bayezid II(1481-1512) came to throne, his brother Cem hadcome to Bursa and declared his sovereignty…. READ »

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Hard Times: Bursa, DuringOccupation-TowardsIndependence

At the end of the first world war, Turkey was occupiedby entente powers. Greeks have first occupiedIzmir and its surroundings in 1920 and then invadedMustafakemalpafla and Karacabey on june 6, 1920.English troops occupied Gemlik on July 6.The greatest suffering in… READ »

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The Problems ThatModern Bursa Faces

The people of Bursa suffered a lot during the yearsof occupation. Especially in the villages, many peoplewere killed and many houses were burntdown. Many districts were destoyed and burntdown during the occupation years in centralBursa as well. After the post-occupationalperiod,… READ »

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Atatürk and Bursa

Atatürk declared Ankara, which was the centre ofthe war of national liberation, as capital but he wasalways interested in Bursa. Thus, Bursa is one ofthe cities Atatürk visited most. From 1922 to his death,Atatürk had visited Bursa for 18 times.Atatürk… READ »

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HAS WITNESSED MANY CATASTROPHES

While Bursa was facing a new construction wave,at the same time it suffered many catastrophes suchas fire and earthquakes as well. These catastrophesmostly damaged the historical buildings of Bursa.The first significant catastrophe of Bursa was witnessedin 1402 during its invasion… READ »

Fires

Bursa has been a victim of fires frequently due toits southwest wind and wooden houses. In a fire occurredon 2 February, 1489, 25 neighborhoods werecompletely burned down. In the fire of 7 August,1491, many monumental buildings in Bursa wereburned. Half… READ »

Bursa, A City Devastated ByEarthquakes

Bursa is a city located within a region of first gradeearthquake risk, and it has occasionally suffered devastatingand massive earthquakes. We understandthat the devastating earthquakes of Bursa and itssurroundings occur with 100-150 years intervals.The oldest earthquake recorded in our region… READ »

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THE RULERS OF BURSA

We see that Bursa, a city which had been the capitalof the Ottoman Empire for a long time, governedby administrators called “Sancakbeyi”, “Kad›”, and”Subafl›”. Thus, the first officials Osman Gazi appointedwhen he conquered the surrounding districtsof Bursa, were “Kad›” and… READ »

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From Hüdavendigar to Bursa Administration of the Vilayet (Province)

After Fatih declared ‹stanbul as the new capital ofOttoman Empire, Bursa was called as “Vilayet ofHüdavendigar”, and governed by a mutasarr›f after1844. In 1864, it was granted the status of “eyalet”and began to be governed by “governors” since1867. This promotion… READ »

Bursa Municipality, From Çardak to Metropolitan Status

One of the laws issued by Ottomans pertaining tocity adminitration was “The law of Bursa municipality”.Kad›s were the adminitrators of the districts/subdistricts.They were acting as an administrative of-ficial besides their function as judges. In a sense,they were like mayor of… READ »

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Bursa’s DistrictsCentral Districts Osmangazi

Established on 18.06.1987 under the Law No.3391, Osmangazi Municipality is the largest andmost populated of the three districts of Bursa. Osmangaziis the largest district and Municipality ofthe Metropolitan Municipality of Bursa and also theone with the most problems in terms… READ »

Nilüfer

Named after the Nilüfer Rivulet, which was namedafter the attractive wife of Orhan Ghazi, Nilüfer. AtNilüfer, one of the central districts of Bursa,Tepecik Tumulus at Alaaddinbey Village, AkçalarAktoprak Tumulus, Akçalar Aktoprakl›k Tumulus,Kite/Ürünlü, Gölyaz› and Tahtal› Village are zonesthat have been… READ »

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Yıldırım

Named after the buildings complex constructed bySultan Bayez›t I. Established to the east of Bursa,Y›ld›r›m is bigger than many of the provinces inTurkey in terms of population and area. It has anarea of 397 sq. kilometers and a population of… READ »

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Other DistrictsGemlik

Situated to the northeast of Bursa by 32 km and ona bay named after it, which is the quietest bay of theSea of Marmara, Gemlik is the most ancient city ofBursa established in Bursa about three millenniaago. Its name was… READ »